Why Young People Are Part-Time Employed in Europe

Education is the main reason for part-time employment among the youth in Europe with 41.4% of people aged 15-29 years working part time due to this reason. Denmark is the leader in this regard as 78.4% of its young population is employed part time because of education and it keeps its leading position through the years.

Moreover, this share increases to 84.1% when regarding younger part of the cohort under consideration, namely, people aged 15-24.

The second most important reason for the part-time employment is absence of full-time job where Italy is on the top: this reason is responsible for about four fifths of part-time employment among the youths. The further consideration of statistics by age groups and reasons for part-time employment leads to some interesting findings. So, there is strong negative relationship between share of people aged 15-24 working part-time because of education and share of people aged 25-29 working part time because of absence of full-time job. Specifically, in average, each additional percent of the former cohort results in 0.7% decrease of the latter one. There again, Denmark, mentioned above for its leading position in the ranking by share of the youths employed part time due to education, is among the latest countries in the ranking by share of people aged 25-29 employed part-time because of absence of full-time job.

On the contrary, Romania, where only 9.8% of people aged 15-24 work part-time because of education, 75.8% of people aged 25-29 work part-time because of absence full-time job. Another interesting finding derived from the analysis of differences between sexes is the following. In countries where more males work part-time because of absence of full-time job, less woman work part time because of childcare. Thus, in Austria where childcare is the reason for about 40% of part-time employment among women aged 25-29 only 16.7% of males work part time because of absence of full-time job. In Spain there is reverse situation: childcare accounts for only 6.6% of part-time employed women while absence of full-time job accounts for 80% of part-time employed men. This probably means that when more male population has well paid full-time job more women has the chance to take care after children.

Specifications: 1) Reasons for part-time employment: CARE - looking after children or incapacitated adults, FAM - other family or personal responsibilities, ILL - own illness or disability, EDUC - in education or training, NOJOB - could not find a full-time job, OTH - other reasons; 2) Sex: M - male, F - female; 3) Age groups in years: 15-19, 15-24, 15-29, 20-24, 20-29, 25-59.

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