A sovereign default is the failure or refusal of the government of a sovereign state to pay back its debt in full. Cessation of due payments (also euphemistically termed receivables) may either be accompanied by formal declaration (repudiation) of a government not to pay (or only partially pay) its debts, or it may be unannounced. Defaults have typically involved low-income and emerging-market economies, although recent cases include advanced-economy sovereigns. Until recently, there have been few efforts to systematically measure and aggregate the nominal value of the different types of sovereign government debt in default. This reflects a number of factors. An important reason is that there is no single internationally recognized definition of what constitutes a sovereign default. As a result, standards used by government borrowers and their creditors to report defaults, if they report at all, differ, and information on the various types of defaulted debt must be mined from different sources.
The Global Peace Index is a composite index comprised of 23 qualitative and quantitative indicators that gauge the level of peace in 162 countries. These indicators can be grouped into three broad themes: the level of safety and security in a society, the number of international and domestic conflicts and the degree of militarisation. The only statistical measure of its kind, the Global Peace Index allows us to understand what makes societies peaceful and what we need to do in order to mitigate violence in the future. The 2015 Global Peace Index shows that the world is becoming increasingly divided with some countries enjoying unprecedented levels of peace and prosperity while others spiral further into violence and conflict.
In 2014, the world population reached 7.21 billion people. However, some countries are facing depopulation. Besides Japan, these are mainly Central & Eastern European highly indebted states. Hard economic conditions, caused by austerity policy, lack of growth and high unemployment are forcing people to move to other countries in search for better job. Only during 2013-2014 (July to July) Spain have lost about 215 thousands of residents, Romania 73 thousands, Greece - 70 thousands, Ukraine 126 thousands, Portugal - about 60 thousands.
It seems that the one who is benefiting from this process of labour force migration the most - is the Germany. Since 2005 Germany had a very large population decrease: about 1,6 mln., the second largest single-country depopulation in the world for the past 10 years by the absolute amount. But since 2011 due to influx of work force from the European "periphery", this trend has broken. In 2014 Germany got total increase of about 244 thousands of people.
Global Firepower (GFP) provides a unique analytical display of data concerning today's world military powers. Over 100 world powers are considering in the ranking which allows for a broad spectrum of comparisons to be achieved concerning relative military strengths. The GFP ranking is based strictly on each nations potential conventional war-making capabilities across land, sea and air. The nuclear capability is not taken into account. The final ranking also incorporates values related to resources, finances and geography.
Gender inequality is still an acute problem in the modern world. It arises from differences in social, political and civil rights between men and women. This problem has existed since ancient times and remains urgent to the present. Nowadays fighters for women's rights has achieved notable progress. In many countries the differences in rights between men and women have become less noticeable. However, in some regions the women are still highly discriminated against.
The presence and magnitude of gender inequality is evaluated by measuring the representation of men and of women in a range of roles. A number of international comparative gender equality indices have been prepared and these offer a way to compare the level of gender equality in different countries.